Well-known expression ! Who never heard !? You'll get called Arthur !
It would come from the Second World War and would refer to the & rsquo; German occupation in France which fixed a curfew 20 hours. The name “Arthur” is a German strain “eight o'clock'” (“20 hours”) that German patrols shouted to potential laggards.
What is the common point between the French Germaine Tillion alias “running” in the Museum of Man Network, Marie-Madeleine Fourcade also French Alias “Hedgehog” in its SR Alliance, Belgian Andrée Eugénie Adrienne De Jongh alias “Dedee” Comet in its network and Norwegian Anne Sofie Østvedt alias “Aslak” XU in its network ?
Well, they are among the very few women to have been resistance network leaders !
D & rsquo; backgrounds and nationalities, they all chose to fight against the & rsquo; ogre Hitler. Some experienced arrests, interrogations, the concentration camps but all have largely lived after the war !
Le submarine 480 (U-480) is a German submarine, The type VII Alberich, built on the principle of stealth : completely covered with rubber, it was undetectable to Allied sonar.
Its rubber coating was bristling with multiple holes of different diameters, whose main property was d & rsquo; absorbing waves of Allied sonar. This coating was called “Alberich”, also known as the anechoic tiles.
It was also equipped with all new acoustic guided torpedoes.
The U-480 destroyed four Allied ships at d & rsquo; a mission in the Channel 1944, but exploded on a sea mine in the minefield Brazier the D2 29 January 1945 at d & rsquo; a mission in southern & rsquo; Isle of Wight leaving no survivor among the 48 members & rsquo; crew.
Commissioned by & rsquo; Oberleutnant Hans-Joachim Förster, he sent to the bottom 14 000 barrels 4 days, despite a hunt at all times by the allied fleet and 92 underwater grenades randomly.
C & rsquo; is the 11 September 1944, off the & rsquo; Ireland, what, breaking his radio silence, by sending his staff results of his mission, that the allies will, for the first time, hear about the process Alberich. The British do not understand what's behind Alberich and think anti-grenades shield submarine or a new way to more powerful propulsion. But it & rsquo; is in discovering the character of & rsquo; Alberich, in an opera Wagner, capable, with a cape, to become invisible, that the allies will understand what constituted the & rsquo; German technological innovation.
At & rsquo; except for the U-480, none of the ten other submarines of this type was lost in combat.
L & rsquo; s & rsquo wreck, U-480 was not found that & rsquo; in 1998 at 58 meters deep with even much of its rubber coating.
After the war, anechoic tiles will not be used before the years 1970, when the Soviet Navy began to take its rubber submarines. Over time, technology progressing, tiles made it possible to dramatically reduce the acoustic signature of the submarine. The tiles of Russian submarines of the Akula class have a thickness d & rsquo; about 100 mm and reduce their acoustic signature 10 at 20 dB (10 % at 1 % of the initial power).
L & rsquo; US Navy began applying anechoic coatings on its submarines from 1988, and other marine followed quickly.
Thank you to my friend Eric and http://bigot45.free.fr
France is still living on the time zone of the & rsquo; Occupation…
At & rsquo; arrival of German in 1940, France has advanced his watch d & rsquo; s an hour to & rsquo; align with the & rsquo; Germany. This decision n & rsquo; has never been canceled.
Nazi Germany occupied France in June 1940. We are then in the summer time (GMT+1), in force in France between March and October since the law of 24 May 1923. The rest of the & rsquo; year, France is GMT, therefore aligned with the & rsquo; England.
Except that in Berlin, it is an hour later and the Germans arriving in France does not intend to upset their habits.
In the occupied territories, So we advance his hands an hour (GMT + 1 to GMT + 2), to pass the time was German. France therefore finds "to the & rsquo; German time", expression that come into the everyday language.
To avoid problems, the German army imposes the German time as and when it progresses. The adoption of the German time in occupied territory will sometimes be legalized, as in the official bulletin of the city of Paris from 15 June, which invited "to forward one hour clocks, clocks and watches the 14 June 23 h, so as to bring them at midnight ", but more often, the public will be informed by orders of the military authorities or the press.
The speaking clock of the Paris Observatory, inaugurated in 1933, who had temporarily worked from Bordeaux, and had stopped issuing, resumed its operation "German time".
The time change will apply only occupied area. Paris will be well ahead one hour in Vichy.
France finds itself so divided in two by the line. This poses some problems at the SNCF.
To end delay problems, This is the train that offers the Vichy government to align also the German time, that & rsquo; it is by the decree of 16 February 1941.
At the Liberation, an order that provides for DST, or "German time", Your GMT + 2, will be removed in two stages. The returns of France & rsquo; First GMT +1 whole & rsquo; year, and plans to come back later to GMT.
But the second round was canceled by Decree No. 45-2782 of 5 November 1945 and France remained on time (GMT + 1) summer, or, in other words, ... to the German winter time. She remained there until 28 mars 1976, when following the first oil crisis, President Giscard restore DST (GMT+2) to reduce the country's energy consumption.
before 1923, France, lived in & rsquo; BST (GMT)
of 1923 at 1940, it is the & rsquo; s UK time & rsquo; winter, but not the & rsquo; was where she lives to GMT + 1
of 1940 at 1945, she lives entirely in & rsquo; German time (GMT+2).
of 1945 at 1976, she lives in the & rsquo; German time the & rsquo; winter, but not the & rsquo; summer.
Since 1976, we are again fully in & rsquo; German time, summer, like winter.
In 1941, to improve the quality of air defenses, the English are developing a new type of simulator for training of their gunners.
These simulators take the form of domes to allow men to practice shooting from the floor with anti-aircraft weapons, without wasting ammunition. The dome resembles a planetarium.
Inside, the dome is movie screen automatically on which are projected images of planes. Sound effects reproduce the conditions of fighting.
Gunner training follows the target in the viewfinder of his fake gun and shoots rays of light above. An instructor observes and helps by correcting his mistakes. At the end of the year we note results.
This system was far ahead of its time. The technology is so revolutionary for the time is classified “Top secret”.
Several domes exist, including the Langham in Norfolk which has been restored and became a museum to remember this amazing story !
Thank you to Eric for this article very interesting and its http://bigot45.free.fr
Boody traps : Nickname given by the American soldier to left by enemy booby traps to hurt or kill the curious who touches.
Such as a trapped gas can with an S-Mine (German mine that releases bouncing balls of steel) : When the container is lifted, Mine fires and explodes ... or even more devious, a Teller Mine (German anti-tank mine) trapped with a grenade :
When demining mine is disabled and then removed, and grenade hidden below explodes ...
Cartoons are broadcast at the time to educate the GI these pitfalls through the character “Private SNAFU” which does not lack curiosity… Here it is :
SNAFU is an acronym for "Situation Normal, All Fucked Up », we can bring the situation under control, all share in testicle
During the Second World War, dropping bombs on a target was not as random or rough as you might think, on the contrary !
Indeed from 1942 American bombers Boeing B-17 are equipped with a viewfinder developed by Carl Norden. This viewfinder through its analog computer, its telescope and its stabilizing gyroscopes can accurately calculate the velocity of the plane of displacement (computational speed relative to a fixed point on the ground, which also allows to deduct the headwinds and thus to know when exactly drop the bombs against the altitude indicated on the flight instruments). The Norden bombsight is unusual to take control of the aircraft via its automatic pilot to guide it precisely on the target and shoot himself dropping bombs at the right time, Finally, in theory ...
The expected accuracy is of the order of thirty meters ! The reality of use is unfortunately ten times less accurate, being located closer to the 300 meters ... At best !
These results are unconvincing, it was decided to use it with a "Master bomber" : the head of Bomber is the only one using the Norden bombsight and when he dropped his bombs, other bombers do the same without further verification ... All is therefore based on this master bomber, but if a mistake is made or a technical problem occurs, the consequences can be terrible for the "people from below" ! As for example when the bombing Chartres 26 May 1944 where the first B-26 Marauder bomber dropped his bombs after being hit by gunfire from the German Flak, other bombers will even be thinking about the goal ... Or in Normandy when the "master bomber" loses the operation of one of its engines and must jettison its bombs to lighten, the following bombers involves dropping their deadly cargo on Allied troops ...
The Norden bombsight remains an instrument classified top secret Norden so the instruments are dismantled each flight and made secret, more crews were ordered to destroy it if the device would crash into enemy territory !
This type of viewfinder will be used until the Vietnam War.
End of August 1939 war becomes inevitable, it actually broke out on September 1 following.
The protection of windows of the Charters of the Cathedral begins 25 August.protection, is meant removal ! Indeed the complete removal of stained glass, more than 2500 square meters, is carried out in ten days ! It must be said that the same operation had already been taken to the First World War.
The windows are all numbered (They still are today as you can see in the pictures) and carefully stored in boxes, themselves stored in the crypt of the cathedral.
With the German advance, it was decided to move the boxes in the Périgord careers to hide there, the rest is nothing less than our national Jean Moulin, who organized transport, it was indeed Charters prefect at the time… But there was no time, only a little more 500 boxes on 1000 were finally moved from the crypt to the Périgord.
The windows will find their place in the cathedral 1948.
Charles Elwood “Chuck” Yeager (born the 13 February 1923 Myra, West Virginia) is an American airman. It is famous for having been the first to break the sound barrier, aboard the Bell X-1, the 14 October 1947.
Chuck Yeager between the US Army Air Corps a few months before the US involvement in World War II, the 12 September 1941. Affected in Britain from November 1943, it acquires the status of aces aviation and ends the conflict with the rank of captain and thirteen German aircraft shot down in his record.
It is one of the first drivers to have shot down a Bf 262.
In his autobiography, he described the atrocities that he had orders to commit against German civilians : "Atrocities were committed by both sides. (…) An area of fifty miles on fifty inside Germany was assigned to our seventy-five Mustangs and they were ordered to strafe anything that moved. The goal was to demoralize the German population. (…) If someone refused to participate (and, As far as I can remember, no one refused), it would probably have been court martialled. »
Yeager adds that, at a briefing, he whispered to his neighbor : "If we do such things, We really have to strive to be on the winning side. »
He conjectures that, to commit these atrocities, the high command gave the excuse the overlap between military and civilians in Germany Wartime : "The farmer who was plowing his potato field can be fed German troops. And because German industry was destroyed by the constant bombing, manufacturing ammunition had become a cottage industry, scattered across the country in hundreds of houses and local factories, what was the excuse for the British carpet bombing and incendiary bombs on civilian targets. In war, military rarely hesitate to hit civilians who are in the way or make targeting civilians for various strategic reasons. »
After the war, it remains in the US Air Force and became newly created pilot instructor, then test pilot from July 1945. Transferred to Muroc Field in California (Today the Edwards base), he is the first man to break the sound barrier on 14 October 1947 at 10 h 18, aboard the Bell X-1 prototype, rocket-powered aircraft designed after the ball gauge 12,7 mm comes out of the barrel of a gun at supersonic speed. On the eve of this historic flight, Chuck did a ride in the desert and fall, breaking two ribs.
In September 1953, Chuck Yeager is one of the first Americans to fly a MiG-15 that a pilot deserter North Korean, No Kum-Many, delivered to the US Army.
in addition 1955, he returned to Europe with the lieutenant-colonel to command the 417th Fighter-Bomber Squadron based at Hahn in Germany, then on the basis of Toul-Rosières in France, July 1956 to July 1957.
The 10 December 1963, Yeager narrowly escapes death, when he lost control of the Lockheed NF-104A prototype altitude 108 700 feet (33 131 meters). Managing to eject after a steep fall 100 200 feet (30 540 meters), it will fare badly burned.
Both flights are narrated in the book of Tom Wolfe and the film of the same name by Philip Kaufman, The Fabric heroes (The Right Stuff).
In July 1966, he took command of the 405th Fighter Wing of the US Air Base Clarke, in the Phillippines, and performs 127 missions over Vietnam.
After being promoted to brigadier general in August 1969, Yeager held various positions before retiring from the Air Force on March 1 1975.
In 1986, he was part of the Rogers Commission to investigate the crash of the space shuttle Challenger, destroyed the launch 28 January 1986.
The 14 October 1997, to celebrate the birthday of 50 years the sound barrier passage, it flies on board an Eagle F15 and returns symbolically.
For his flight in the Bell X-1, Chuck Yeager wears a Rolex Oyster ; the brand does not fail to recall the in advertising campaigns.
In 2003, then aged 80 years, it flies at Oshkosh on a Mustang P-51, duet with his then squadron comrade, le colonel Bud Anderson.
The 14 October 2012, anniversary of his feat, Felix Baumgartner became the first man to pass the sound barrier in free fall.
Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star with one bronze oak leaf (for shooting down five Messerschmitt Bf 109 in one day)
Distinguished Flying Cross with two oak leaf bronze (for shooting down a Messerschmitt Me 262 and passing the sound barrier)
Legion of Merit with oak leaf bronze
Air Medal with two oak leaf silver
Air Force Commendation Medal
Presidential Unit Citation with one bronze oak leaf
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver star and 3 bronze stars
World War II Victory Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Congressional Silver Medal (1976), for passing the sound barrier for the first time.
Source : http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuck_Yeager
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